The map below grades each state on 11 labor policies. The grading system considers state laws, administrative codes, and regulations related to public sector collective bargaining. This approach goes beyond right-to-work status to reveal how each state protects the rights of individual workers, and shields taxpayers from overspending. For a full explanation of the grading rubric see the 3rd edition of our Grading State Public Sector Labor Laws report. 

Download the full Grading Public Sector Labor Laws report here.

F A+

Source: Analysis of State Statutes

*Public Sector collective bargaining is illegal in the state.

**Grade has changed since 2017 or 2019. See Table 4 in the full report for details.

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Legality of public worker strikes
Is there paycheck protection?
What items may be negotiated in collective bargaining?
Is collective bargaining legal for government workers?
How unions are certified
Do unions have a right to exclusive representation of workers?
Are there provisions permitting union release time?
Are there union membership opt-out windows?
Are union contract negotiations open to the public?
Is binding arbitration required during collective bargaining impasses?
What grade did this state previously earn?
Government Union Political Spending, 2021-22
Top Recipient of Government Union Money, 2021-22 (amount)